Grower Survey Information Presented at APRES by Roy

— Written By

Survey of Growers in North Carolina with Respect to Integrated Pest Management Strategies in Peanut.

R. THAGARD*, D.L. JORDAN, R.L. BRANDENBURG, and B.B. SHEW, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh, NC 27695; and D. SANDE and D. SETH CARLEY, Center for Integrated Pest Management, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.

A survey of 27 growers representing 12 counties in North Carolina was conducted during spring 2012, reflecting the 2011 peanut crop, to determine grower adoption and use of IPM principles, sources of pest management information, and specific management practices and inputs.

Eighty-one percent of growers wanted additional information on IPM, with 63%, 52%, and 22% currently receiving information from print, direct contact, and computer/network sources, respectively. Seventy-eight percent of growers received information from the Cooperative Extension Service peanut production guide. Sixty-seven, 26, 37, and 67 percent of growers listed consultants, other growers, company representatives, and agribusiness dealers as sources of information, respectively.

Using safer pesticides, pesticides less prone to develop resistance, sprayer calibration, applying correct pesticide rates, applying pesticides only if needed, keeping records, and training workers were listed as components of pest management by 89, 78, 96, 96, 96, 93, and 89 percent of growers, respectively. Twenty-two, 79, 26, and 78 percent of growers soil sampled for nematodes, monitored for leaf spot, used the Sclerotinia blight advisory, and monitored for other soil borne diseases, respectively.

Although growers scouted for insects (74 to 85%) and 63% used action thresholds, only 18% used the southern corn rootworm advisory while only 22% used the tomato spotted wilt index. The percentage of growers scouting the previous fall for weeds and scouting in season was 48% and 96%, respectively.

Ninety-six percent of growers rotated peanut with other crops, with cotton, corn, and tobacco included by 74, 70, and 26 percent of growers, respectively. Only 11% included soybean in their peanut rotations. Twenty-two percent irrigated peanut. The varieties Bailey, CHAMPS, and Perry were the top three varieties planted in 2011. Tillage operations including disk, chisel plow, moldboard plow, rip and bed, bed, and strip till were performed by 76, 20, 8, 37, 36, and 19 percent of growers, respectively.

Important weeds in peanut, listed in order of mention by growers, included sicklepod, morningglory, common lambsquarters, Palmer amaranth, common ragweed, common cocklebur, nutsedge, broadleaf signalgrass, and fall panicum. S-metolachlor (Dual Magnum) and flumioxazin (Valor SX) were the most popular residual herbicides applied at planting (74 and 59% of growers, respectively). The most popular postemergence herbicides included 2,4-DB, acifluorfen plus bentazon, clethodim, and imazapic. Chlorothalonil, prothioconazole plus tebuconazole, and pyraclostrobin were the top three fungicides used to manage leaf spot and stem rot disease. Aldicarb was applied in the seed furrow by 59% of growers with phorate and acephate applied about equally by the balance of growers. Prothioconazole was applied in the seed furrow by 37% of growers while only 11% of growers fumigated with metam sodium. Thirty-seven percent of growers applied chlorpyrifos to control southern corn rootworm. Seventy-five percent of growers inoculated peanut with Bradyrhizobia while 19% applied prohexadione calcium to manage peanut vine growth.

Article first appeared as North Carolina Peanut Note (PNNC-2013-020)