Planting Dates 2013

— Written By

May 25, 2013

I had a question about planting dates. Generally, peanut planted in early June (5th to 8th data) will yield much lower than those planted in early to late May (our planting date data goes up to about May 25 with respect to May planting.) Of course we discussed 2012 data related to planting dates at one of our sessions this past winter (and I stumbled through it at a few grower meetings) showing higher yields with June planted peanut compared with May planted peanut. I suspect this is an oddity and in most cases June yields will be lower than May yields. Here is a copy of an abstract for the APRES meeting this year on the topic. Data on page 35 of 2013 Peanut Information are a bit misleading because it is an average of the four years and does not reflect the range of response (3 years considerably lower with late planting and one year a big improvement in yield with late planting.) I have put those data in the book two years in a row in different ways and I think I still miss the point on planting date response. As you know peanut are very flexible and forgiving, especially if the fall is conducive to allowing peanut to reach maturity (extra time in October with adequate heat and not too much moisture.)

So, in most years (3 of 4 based on these data for CHAMPS and Perry) peanut planted in early June will yield a lot less than those planted earlier (if 2 tons that is 20% lower.) But don’t give up on them and if one carefully digs and has the weather to help that 22% goes down considerably…it’s just more risky. I will say this year we planted some peanut May 2 and they did not emerge until about May 16, so planting now is in reality not all that far behind late April and early May plantings. This morning was rather cold to me and tomorrow might not be a lot better…we are not having many heat units accumulating, so in reality folks are not that far behind. We still have about a week until June 1 so maybe most folks can get peanut planted this coming week. When we get to the second week of June that is when someone might decide to shift to soybeans. Maybe we won’t need to discuss this if we have a good week this coming week (which is the general forecast.)

I would not change my production practices any when planting this coming week compared to planting earlier. But if you get into June for planting I think there are a few things to consider that can help on production costs. For example, I don’t think an in-furrow insecticide is needed when we plant in June, so I would encourage folks to leave that off and be ready with an Orthene spray. Also, spraying fungicides based on phenology (growth stage) will most likely mean later initiation of sprays for later-planted peanut. It is conceivable that growers can spend less on disease. Also keep in mind that most people are planting Bailey and they are forgiving from a disease standpoint and they tend to mature on the same line as CHAMPS, so maturity is not as much compromised compared with planting something like Perry. A shorter season might also influence weed control in a positive way given peanuts should grow rapidly this time of year in terms of vegetative growth and there is a shorter season when weeds are generally a problem (May-August vs. June-August). I do think if you can keep from injuring peanut with any herbicides that will help the pace of maturity, but if you have weeds you have to control them.

Hope this helps.

Response of the Cultivars CHAMPS and Perry to Planting and Digging Dates in North Carolina.

P.D. JOHNSON and D.L. JORDAN*, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695; and T. CORBETT, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Lewiston-Woodville, NC 27849.

Research was conducted from 2009-2012 in North Carolina to compare peanut yield and market grade characteristics of the Virginia market type cultivar CHAMPS and Perry planted approximately May 5, May 25,and June 8 when dug approximately September 5 and 25 and October 5 and 20. When dug at optimum maturity, as reflected in the highest yield among the four digging dates, yield and market grades generally varied little when peanut was planted in early or late May. In 3 of 4 years (2009-2011) peanut yield was lower when peanut was planted June 8 and dug October 20 compared with earlier plantings and digging at optimum maturity. However, in 2012 yield was highest when peanut was planted in early June and dug in late October compared with the other planting dates. While surprising, these results most likely can be explained by weather conditions during the growing season in 2012 relative to other years. Hot and dry conditions were noted during much of 2012 in June and early July compared with greater rainfall during this period of time during 2009-2011. This weather pattern during 2012 most likely reduced the number of flowers produced when peanut was planted earlier in the season compared with the later-planted peanut. Peanut planted during early June was in the vegetative stage during the hot and dry conditions of June and early July. In mid-July rainfall and temperature patterns changed significantly in favor of both vegetative and reproductive growth and remained this way for most of the remainder of the growing season. While results from this experiment generally show that yield of peanut in the Virginia-Carolina region are optimal when planting in May, in some instances weather patterns may favor later-planted peanut. These results also indicted that exhibiting patience in the fall in terms of digging can result in higher peanut yields.

Peanut yield as influenced by planting and digging date at Lewiston-Woodville during 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012.
Plant Dig 2009 2010 2011 2012 Average
May 5 Sep 8 4102 2553 3158 3117 3233
May 25 Sep 8 3548 2369 2718 3035 2917
June 8 Sep 8 2306 1859 1312 2612 2022
May 5 Sep 20 5258 3654 3687 3988 4147
May 25 Sep 20 4888 3406 2831 4158 3820
June 8 Sep 20 3655 2875 1713 4042 3071
May 5 Oct 7 5410 4484 2961 3529 4096
May 25 Oct 7 5956 4266 3307 4492 4506
June 8 Oct 7 4971 3665 2601 4796 4008
May 5 Oct 20 4338 3894 2925 2598 3439
May 25 Oct 20 5488 4003 3251 4575 4329
June 8 Oct 20 4569 3957 2421 5886 4208
Difference -1387 -527 -1266 +1090 -298

Article first appeared as North Carolina Peanut Note (PNNC-2013-027)