Crop Summary September 4, 2014

— Written By

Temperature has reached normal levels over the past 2 weeks and is forecasted to be normal over the coming week. Rainfall during the past two weeks has been limited in some areas of the region and stress during the peak of the day has been noticeable. However, rains during the last few days, while inconsistent, have helped in some areas. Soil moisture in many areas of the region is adequate to allow peanut to continue pod maturation but in some areas rainfall will be needed within the next two weeks to complete pod development. Heat unit accumulation has increased during the past two weeks compared with late July/early August readings (Table 1). Although there is some concern over the cool period in early August, this most likely will have a minimal impact on pod development and maturation. Stem rot and leaf spot have been controlled well. Fungicide applications for Sclerotinia blight have been effective and current temperatures have reduced incidence and severity of this disease. Peanut vines continue to be in good shape going into the latter part of the first week of September (figures 1-3). However, some tomato spotted wilt has been noted in fields planted with Sugg and CHAMPS but little to no negative impact has been noted for the variety Bailey (approximately 75% of the Virginia market type acreage is planted with this variety). Regrowth following multiple applications of Apogee has been observed in some fields (figures 4-7).

The majority of peanut in the upper V-C are 2 to 3 weeks from optimum maturity for digging even when planted in early May (figures 8-11). Maturity for Bailey and Sugg as well as the high oleic varieties Sullivan and Wynne is generally similar (figures 12-15). However, growers will be assessing maturity in a comprehensive manner over the next two weeks. Peanut in the lower V-C are more advanced in maturity than those in the mid and upper V-C, however, drier conditions were experienced in the lower V-C earlier in the growing season and may have affected maturity. A great deal of income can be obtained by digging peanut at optimum maturity (figures 16 and 17).

There are 4 to 6 weeks remaining for the 2014 peanut crop in the V-C region. Peanuts in the V-C region continue to be poised to yield well depending on weather. Acreage projection is 205,000 acres or 83,000 hectares in the region (slightly higher than previous projections). Average yield potential is estimated at approximately 4,000 pounds per acre but could be reduced if extended dry weather occurs over the next three weeks.

2014-132-Table1

peanut vines in field

Figure 1. Vines of peanut planted May 2 with image recorded September 4.

peanut vines in field

Figure 2. Vines of peanut planted May 16 with image recorded September 4.

peanut vines in field

Figure 3. Vines of peanut planted May 28 with image recorded September 4.

untreated peanut vines in field

Figure 4. The variety Bailey not treated with Apogee with image recorded September 4.

treated peanut vines in field

Figure 5. The variety Bailey treated with one application of Apogee with image recorded September 4.

treated peanut vines in field

Figure 6. The variety Bailey treated with 2 applications of Apogee with image recorded September 4.

treated peanut vines in field

Figure 7. The variety Bailey treated with 3 applications of Apogee with image recorded September 4.

shelled peanuts showing range of color

Figure 8. Pod mesocarp color of peanut on September 4 when planted May 2.

shelled peanuts showing range of color

Figure 9. Pod mesocarp color of peanut on September 4 when planted May 19.

shelled peanuts showing range of color

Figure 10. Pod mesocarp color of peanut on September 4 when planted May 28.

shelled peanuts showing range of color

Figure 11. Pod mesocarp color of peanut on September 4 when planted June 20.

shelled peanuts showing range of color

Figure 12. Pod mesocarp color of peanut on September 4 when Bailey was planted May 2 in experiment with Sugg, Sullivan and Wynne.

shelled peanuts showing range of color

Figure 13. Pod mesocarp color of peanut on September 4 when Sugg was planted May 2 in experiment with Bailey, Sullivan and Wynne.

shelled peanuts showing range of color

Figure 14. Pod mesocarp color of peanut on September 4 when Sullivan was planted May 2 in experiment with Bailey, Sugg and Wynne.

shelled peanuts showing range of color

Figure 15. Pod mesocarp color of peanut on September 4 when Wynne was planted May 2 in experiment with Bailey, Sugg and Sullivan.

graph of yield and market grade curves

Figure 16. Typical yield and market grade curves for digging dates observed for the variety Gregory (ELK = extra large kernels, TSMK = total sound mature kernels).

graph of yield over digging date

Figure 17. Yield observed for the variety Bailey demonstrating that Bailey offers more flexibility in digging than traditional varieties, due in part to smaller pods relative to other Virginia market types and good plant health due to disease resistance. This figure also demonstrates the value of delaying digging until optimum maturity.

Article first appeared as North Carolina Peanut Note (PNNC-2014-132 )