Abstracts of Agent Presentations at 2018 APRES Meeting Peanut Notes No. 19 2018

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Abstracts of Presentations from Peanut Projects with NC State University/N.C. Cooperative Extension Agents at 2018 APRES Meeting

Using the Peanut Belt Research Station to Enhance County Programs in Bertie County North Carolina. B. BARROW*, J. HURRY, R. RHOADS, D.L. JORDAN, B.B. SHEW, and R.L. BRANDENBURG, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh, NC 27695; and T. CORBETT, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Lewiston-Woodville, NC.

A field day has been conducted in North Carolina at the Peanut Belt Research Station (Lewiston-Woodville, NC in Bertie county) since 2012 in late July or early August to provide information to local farmers and other members of the agricultural sector. Prior to 2012 a broader tour in the county was in place which included one or two stops at this station. Between 45 and 50 people attend the field day each year. Major crops in Bertie county in 2017 included corn (11,305 acres), cotton (21,158 acres), peanut ( 10,217 acres), clary sage (14,718 acres), soybean ( 36,465 acres), sweetpotato (1,229 acres), tobacco (5,644 acres), and wheat (8,648 acres). Topics pertaining to peanut have included disease, insect, and weed management; varieties and digging dates; plant growth regulation; and rotation sequence and diversity. Weed management in cotton and clary sage; fertility management in corn and clary sage; variety performance in corn, cotton, grain sorghum, and soybean; factors that influence cotton and soybean maturation; insect management in cotton; and the potential for industrial hemp in the state have been featured in some years. In addition to the Bertie county field tour, the annual North Carolina Peanut Field Day is conducted on this station in early September and several in-service sessions are included to help Cooperative Extension agents.

Summary of Farmer Practices in the Virginia-Carolina Region Related to Digging and Harvesting Peanut. A. BRADLEY*, D.L. JORDAN, B.B. SHEW, R.L. BRANDENBURG, G ROBERSON, B. SANDLIN, B. BARROW, J. HURRY, B. MCLEAN, M. LEARY, M. SHAW, M. CARROLL, P. SMITH, R. THAGARD, A. WHITEHEAD, B. PARISH, J. HOLLAND, T. BRITTON, J. MORGAN, A. COCHRAN, C. ELLISON, M. HUFFMAN, M. SEITZ, D. LILLEY, L. GRIMES, M. MALLOY, D. KING, R. WOOD, A. WILLIAMS, and M. BENNETT, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh, NC 27695; D.J. ANCO, J. THOMAS, K. KIRK, C. DAVIS, J. CROFT, J. VARN, T. DeHOND, W. HARDEE, H. MIKELL, J. STOKES, D. DeWITT, M. BARNES, and J. BALLEW, South Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Clemson, SC Edisto Research and Education Center, Clemson University, Blackville, SC 29817; M. BALOTA, H. MEHL, S.V. TAYLOR, L. PREISSER, N. NORTON, M. PARRISH, S. REITER, G. SLADE, J. SPENCER, and M. WILLIAMS, Virginia Cooperative Extension Service, Blacksburg, VA 24061.

A survey of over 300 growers in the Virginia-Carolina region was conducted at production meetings in winter 2018 to determine practices associated with digging peanut and harvesting. The time required to harvest was approximately 1.6 times longer than the time required to dig. The percentage of growers applying prohexadione calcium in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia was 56%, 13%, and 51%, respectively. The percentage of farmers using a guidance system to dig in these respective states was 38%, 79%, and 32%. Growers were asked to estimate the number of days a sample of pod-blasted peanut should be dug. Based on yield response in the study from which the image was recorded, optimum maturity was estimated to be 10 days after the image was recorded. Growers were told that soil conditions would be good for digging during the next 3 weeks, no tropical weather was in the forecast, little to no disease was present in the canopy, and no frost was expected over the following 3 weeks. These conditions would be ideal for digging and harvesting conditions. The range of estimates was between 0 days to wait to dig up to 21 days later. In North Carolina the average estimate was 10 days while in both South Carolina and Virginia was 8 days to digging. Very few growers reported that they needed to dig earlier than optimum maturity based on defoliation caused by leaf spot. Although not presented here, growers were asked to provide their acreage, an estimate of yield, and the equipment they use to dig and harvest peanut. Growers were also asked to rank the relative maturity of the cultivars Bailey, Sullivan, and Wynne.

Influence of Quick-SOL and Peg Power on Peanut Yield in Small-Plot Research.  M. CARROLL*, D.L. JORDAN, and A.T. HARE, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh, NC 27695.

Research was conducted over three years in separate trials to determine the impact of sequential applications of Quick-SOL (ionized sodium silicate, 50-80% water, 20-50% near sodium silicate) beginning at 2 weeks after peanut emergence at 2-week intervals (10, 10, and 10 oz formulated product/acre at each application) or two sequential applications of Peg Power (fulvic acid complex 12%, ammoniacal nitrogen 1.31%, nitrate nitrogen 0.32%, urea nitrogen 5.37%, available phosphate 4$, soluble potash 9%) beginning at peak flower (16 oz/acre) and repeated 2 weeks later at 16 oz/acre. Ouick-SOL and Peg Power were evaluated in 12 and 9 experiments, respectively. The main effect of treatment and the interaction of experiment by treatment were not significant for Quick-SOL (P>F = 0.6447, F = 0.2 and P>F = 0.9496, F = 0.4, respectively; cv = 12.2, number of experiments = 12) and Peg Power (P>F = 0.5594, F = 0.3 and P>F = 0.8893, F = 0.5, respectively; cv = 11.9, number of experiments = 9). However, the main effect of experiment was highly significant (P>F = <0.0001) for experiments with both products. Variation in yield across Quick-SOL experiments ranged from 3,480 lbs/acre to 5,930 lbs/acre. When pooled over experiments, pod yield following Quick-SOL was 4,630 lbs/acre lbs/acre compared with 4,570 lbs/acre for non-treated peanuts. For Peg Power, pod yield across experiments ranged from 3,600 lbs/acre to 5,780 lbs/acre. When pooled over experiments, yield following application of Peg Power was 4,720 lbs/acre compared with 4,630 lbs/acre for non-treated peanut.

History and Changes in Production and Pest Management in the Old Peanut Belt in North Carolina. C. ELLISON*, A. WHITEHEAD, Jr., D.L. JORDAN, B.B, SHEW, and R.L. BRANDENBURG, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh, NC 27695.

Prior to changes in the 2003 Federal Farm Bill the combined acreage of peanut in Halifax and Northampton counties was 54,430 (1999) constituting 34% of total acreage in North Carolina. In 1999, acreage in these counties was a combined total of 40,955 (33% of acres in North Carolina). In contrast, acreage in these counties in 2010 was 8,071 or 9% of total acres in the state. More recently, the average number of acres from 2015-2017 for the sum of these counties was 11,565 or 10% of total acres in North Carolina. The change in legislation resulted in a shift from peanut to more grain crops, most notably soybean. Although yield of peanut per acre increased after the change in legislation in these counties, most likely as a result of improved rotations and planting on soils more suitable for peanut, less income across farmers was realized because of the decrease in acreage and shift by small and medium-size farmers to crops other than peanut. Although acreage decreased following the change in legislation in 2003, 25% of growers submitting yield information for the 5,000 Pound Peanut Club for the 2017 season (growers producing an average yield of 5,000 lbs/acre on all acres of production) were from Halifax and Northampton counties. Farmers in these counties have adopted conservation tillage practices for peanut and other crops more rapidly than farmers in many other counties in the state.

Thrips Control in Peanut in North Carolina with Insecticides Applied During Planting and After Peanut Emergence.  L. GRIMES*, R.L. BRANDENBURG, D. L. JORDAN, B.R. ROYALS, and A.T. HARE, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh, NC 27695.

Tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca Hinds) is an important pest in peanut in North Carolina and injury from this insect can result in lower yield. Developing an alternative to aldicarb has been a major focus of research in North Carolina for the past decade. Research was conducted from 2011-2013 in North Carolina to compare visible injury from tobacco thrips feeding and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) when acephate, imidacloprid, and phorate were applied alone in the seed furrow at planting or followed by acephate applied postemergence 3 weeks after planting. In a final experiment conducted during the same time period, a commercial liquid formulation of Bradyrhizobia inoculant was applied alone or with imidaclorpid in fields with and without plantings of peanut in recent years. Peanut foliage in these experiments did not express visible symptoms caused by tomato spotted wilt virus, a tospovirus vectored by thrips (Frankliniella spp.). Peanut injury from tobacco thrips feeding was reduced by acephate, imidacloprid, and phorate applied in the seed furrow at planting compared with non-treated peanut. Imidacloprid was more effective in protecting peanut from injury than phorate. Applying acephate further reduced injury from thrips. Pod yield was greater when imidacloprid was applied compared with yield following non-treated, acephate, and phorate when acephate was not applied postemergence. Pod yield was similar regardless of in-furrow treatment when acephate was applied postemergence. Thrips control by imidacloprid was not affected by Bradyrhizobia inoculant and imidacloprid did not negatively affect efficacy of Bradyrhizobia inoculant regardless of previous field history. These data indicate that imidacloprid protects peanut as well or more effectively than other systemic insecticides currently used in peanut and that imidacloprid is compatible with Bradyrhizobia inoculant. Other research has demonstrated that the formulated product Velum Total (imidacloprid plus fluopyram) controls thrips as well as imidacloprid alone and is compatible with Bradyrhizobia inoculant.

Response of Peanut to Inoculation with Bradyrhizobia and Nitrogen Rate.  D. KING*, D. L. JORDAN, B. SANDLIN, P.D. JOHNSON, and A.T. HARE, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh, NC 27695; D. ANCO,  J. CHAPIN, and J. THOMAS, Edisto Research and Education Center, Clemson University, Blackville, SC 29817; S. MONFORT, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA 31793; and M. BALOTA, Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Suffolk, VA 23437.

Adequate nitrogen (N) fixation by peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is essential to optimize yield. In replicated trials in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia from 1998-2017 in-furrow liquid or granular inoculant increased yield from 3,510 lbs/acre to 4,780 lbs/acre in new peanut fields (57 trials) and 4,280 lbs/acre to 4,450 lbs/acre in fields with a previous history of peanut plantings within the past 4 years (43 trials). The increase in economic value from inoculation treatment ($8/acre) at a peanut price of $535/ton was $337/acre and $41/acre in fields with these respective histories. In a second experiment, replicated trials were conducted from 2007-2017 in fields without a history of peanut production or fields not rotated to peanut in recent memory to determine peanut response to N rate. Economic return based on peanut prices described previously was determined to reflect cost of N applied as ammonium sulfate ($0.28/lb) as a single application 40-60 days after planting when canopy foliage began to express N deficiency. A linear response to N rates of 0, 60, 90, 120, and 150 lbs/acre was noted in 5 of 10 experiments with no response to applied N observed in the remaining 5 trials. When these experiments were included with 4 other experiments where non-inoculated and inoculated controls were compared with N applied at one rate only (120 lbs/acre), yield and economic return were higher for inoculated peanut compared with peanut receiving N or the non-inoculated and non-fertilized control; response of both parameters to N was intermediate. Results from these experiments underscore the value of inoculation with Bradyrhizobia at planting regardless of field history and the limitations of applied N to correct N deficiencies in peanut.

Lessons Learned in a Short Period of Time as Peanut Agents in Northeast North Carolina.  D. LILLEY*, J. HOLLAND, M. LEARY, M. BENNETT, D.L. JORDAN, R.L. BRANDENBURG, and B.B. SHEW, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh, NC 27695.

In recent years there has been a substantial change in field crops agents with Cooperative Extension. For example, Cooperative Extension agents in Chowan, Hertford, Nash, and Perquimans counties have from 1½ to 2½, years of experience in their current roles. While peanut acreage in these counties is relatively modest and ranged from 500 to 5,000 lbs/acre (2017), average county yields during 2017 in these counties ranged from 4,000 to 5,000 lbs/acre. A wide range of outreach activities by Cooperative Extension agents are found in these counties and include: establishing a strong on-farm presence; implementing a comprehensive pod blasting program to determine pod maturity for digging date recommendations; utilizing the weather-based advisory system for leaf spot disease and Sclerotinia blight management; providing updates on when to scout and approaches to scouting; recommendations on early season weed and thrips management options; equipment upkeep, pesticide stewardship and farm safety; assisting growers with decisions on digging and harvesting relative to weather, disease, and planning and facilitating annual county or regional peanut meetings for farmers and related agribusiness. In the process of involvement in these activities a number of production related questions have arisen. These include: timing on fungicide spraying, what materials are recommended for use, timing on digging, whether or not acephate should be applied to control thrips, weed identification and herbicide selection, and what varieties will yield the most. These questions are taken into consideration when planning for each county’s peanut extension program.

Peanut Response to Twin-Row Planting Patterns in North Carolina.  P. SMITH*, D.L. JORDAN. and A.T. HARE, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh, NC 27695; and W. HARRELL, Harrell Crop Consulting, Gatesville, NC 27938.

Statewide, twin-row planting patterns (rows spaced 7-9 inches apart on 36- to 38-inch centers) account for less than 10% of acres but are popular in some counties. For example, in Gates County approximately 40% of growers use this planting pattern. Although more expensive than single row patterns because of slightly higher seeding rates and increased Bradyrhizobia inoculant and in-furrow insecticide costs, growers indicate that using this planting pattern increases yield by 200 to 400 pounds per acre and also results in slightly higher market grade factors (percentages of extra large kernels and sound mature kernels). According to growers indicate that planting in twin-row patterns hastens canopy closures on the sandy soils common in this county and results in cooler soil temperatures in the pegging zone that is more conducive to early peg survival and pod set resulting in earlier and more uniform pod maturation is cited as possible advantages to this planting pattern. Growers also suggest that peanut in both single and twin rows respond similarly to the plant growth regulator prohexadione calcium. Lower incidence of tomato spotted wilt was suggested as another reason twin-row patterns are used. Availability of planters that place seed precisely compared with older units accommodates planting crops other than peanut (corn, grain sorghum, and soybean for example) enabling farmers to extend investment costs for twin-row planters across more acres. Historically, peanut planted in twin row patterns required use of units that were less precise in seed placement and had limited utility for smaller-seeded crops. Research at North Carolina State University supports some of the suggestions made by farmers. Less tomato spotted wilt has been documented and yields in some instances are greater in twin rows compared with single rows. Although twin rows can result in suppression of weeds, the level of suppression does not negate the need for an effective herbicide program. Peanut yield response in twin and single rows can be different based on variety selection. Research also suggests that row visibility within a few weeks prior to digging can be lower in twin rows compared with single rows but this response can be variety dependent.