Planting Peanut in June Peanut Notes No. 46 2018
There are questions about yield response and planting dates. Rainfall has been excessive in many areas of the state during the past week. For many fields, peanut planting will be pushed back to next week at the earliest (Memorial Day) if we do not receive more rain. We go into some detail on planting dates on page 33 in 2018 Peanut Information. Most of our planting date work since 2012 has been with Bailey, and other than looking at double cropping with wheat, we have compared planting dates within the month of May. When looking at planting dates within May, the mid-May date generally does the best, with data for early and late-plantings more variable. Yield with June 20 planting dates is almost always substantially lower than May plantings (see 2018 Peanut Information).
In 2009-2012 we looked at CHAMPS and Perry planted in early May, mid-May and early-June (see below). This may be our most informative data for planting decisions during the next two weeks. Every year is different, but with peanut prices relatively low, planting after June 5 is risky. Based on the data below, yield for early June plantings was as high as early and mid-May plantings in 2 of 4 years. However, in one year (2012) planting in early June resulted in greater yields than May plantings. Limited rain in June (2012) most likely affected flowering, pollination and pegging in a negative way (June-planted peanut would have avoided that stress). After July 1 peanuts for all planting dates were irrigated when needed, and during that year fall conditions allowed later-maturing peanuts to reach optimum maturity. Note that when rainfall amounts were higher in June (2009 and 2011) yield was lower for June planted peanut compared with May plantings. In 2010, yield was the same for all planting dates and rainfall was modest.
We did not see a difference between CHAMPS and Perry (these varieties are not grown at this point but they represented a wide range of maturity.)
A logical question is what happens if you plant between June 6 and June 20. We do not know. My recommendation right now is that if you cannot plant by Friday, June 8, I would transition to soybean.