Jordan Column June Peanut Grower Magazine Peanut Notes No. 76 2022

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In June in the V-C Region there is a lot going on in peanut fields. The performance of preplant incorporated, preemergence and even early postemergence herbicide programs will be apparent. Residual herbicides included with contact herbicides (Gramoxone, Storm, Ultra Blazer, Cobra, and Basagran) and systemic herbicides (Cadre, 2,4-DB, and clethodim-containing products) can help protect peanuts from weed interference well into the middle of the season. There are no major issues in terms of compatibility (greater peanut injury, less weed control, or settling in the tank) when residual herbicides like Dual Magnum, Outlook, Zidua, Warrant, and Anthem Flex are applied with herbicide that control the weeds that are up. There will be fields that have thrips injury at levels that can reduce yield. The key is to scout early, and to control thrips before the terminals are blackened and the plants stunted. Timing will depend on the product used in the seed furrow, and every year we have fields that need a follow up acephate spray regardless of the systemic insecticide used in the seed furrow. In previous years, I would mention that growers need to look at the southern corn rootworm index and decide if chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) is needed in moderate to high-risk fields. Lorsban is not a legal option – we have no chemistry that can be legally used for this pest. Entomologists around the V-C region and southeast are looking at alternatives to Lorsban. Some of the trials are including multiple applications of foliar sprays to control the adults. The entomology community is skeptical that this approach will be effective and there are downsides to making multiple foliar sprays. Depending on the product, we can definitely open the door for spider mites to come in (like we often did with Lorsban.)  Gypsum will start going out in early June is some fields and this process will likely take the month of June to complete. I encourage people to make sure there is adequate peanut growth across the top of the bed to make sure the top of the row doesn’t wash too badly and move a lot of the gypsum to the furrows. At our meetings this past year I discussed interactions of soil pH and gypsum. With elevated production costs and supply chain issues, we are likely going to produce peanuts in some fields with marginal pH values. We need the entire field at pH 5.8 or greater to optimize yield. In research from a few years back, we noted a clear increase in yield from gypsum when soil pH was 6.0. The increase was about 11%. Unfortunately, when the pH was around 5.6, there was an 11% drop in yield compared with the no-gypsum control. This turned out to be a 26% difference when you compared soil pH 5.6 with gypsum to soil pH 6.0 with gypsum. My suggestion is that if your soil pH is in the mid-five unit range, only put out half the rate of gypsum. If you are at 6.0, then the full rate is in order. It will not be long until we will start our fungicide spray programs for leaf spot and stem rot control. In the V-C region, we suggest starting at the R-3 stage of peanuts or no later than July 10. More on that with the next issue.