Comments on Valencia Market Types Peanut Notes No. 100 2023
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I was at a meeting last week and the topic of Valencia market types came up. There may be more acres of this market type than I originally thought. In 2023 Peanut Information we have a table showing yield of two Valencia varieties developed and grown in the southwest versus Bailey or Bailey II. There is a lot in the table, but a quick summary shows that the Valencia varieties (NuMex-01 or NuMex-02) yielded 63% of the Virginia market types (Bailey or Bailey II) from 2017 through 2020. Actual yields for these respective market types was 2,913 pounds per acre and 4,657 pounds per acre. These are not the Valencia market types being grown in NC. Hopefully they will yield closer to 80% of Runner or Virginia market types.
One of my concerns is sprouting in the hull if it gets wet in the fall. Being able to harvest these much earlier than Runner or Virginia market types helps reduce this concern. Valencia and Spanish market types have less dormancy than Virginia or Runner market types.
I sent a few questions out to colleagues in the southwest. I’ve included their response below. Note that the southwest can have extremes in weather but this is not related to tropical events (although south Texas can have storms coming out of the gulf.) In NC, we can get wet and stay wet for long periods of time depending on tropical weather events.
Comments from colleagues in the Southwestern US about Valencia market type varieties
I have not run across any issues with sprouting in the field, but we do not usually have prolonged wet periods at harvest where that is an issue. Experience is limited with Valencia market types but sprouting has not been an issue with Spanish except under extremely prolonged wet periods and generally that was in situations where harvest was a mess no matter what crop you are growing.
Calcium is generally not needed for Valencia market types. High calcium in the soil and in the irrigation water especially where most of the Valencia market types are grown. I do not know for a fact but would guess that the calcium requirements are lower for Valencia vs Virginia.
On the Valencia market types, I think a few things to consider is be on top of your leaf spot program especially late have seen issues with growers thinking they are done with fungicide program and leafspot come in late and decimate the plants. So, I would have a leaf spot application out as close to harvest as PHI will allow. Secondly, don’t be too aggressive on digging. Third, don’t dig and then get a rain on them (this is where I have seen the biggest harvest loss). Better to dig after the rain (I know this is hard for you guys but they really seem to turn loose if they get rained on after digging). Finally, get them out as soon as possible don’t delay digging (not to early because can lose yield and grade) but can’t wait on them they are even way more sensitive than Virginia market types.
Generally, seed dormancy is very slight in Spanish and Valencia peanut cultivars. When the majority of the seeds on a plant get mature and you have an extended wet period, you will get germination of the seeds. This is especially true if the soil has gotten somewhat dry and the weather is warm to hot, and a wet period sets in. I have seen situations where 60 to 70 percent of a crop germinated in such a condition as I described.
Thanks everyone. Severn is growing Valencia in NC and VA. Tropical storms always worry me. But especially for Spanish or Valencia.